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Maroko uudised - ajalugu


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MAROKO

Uudistes


Maroko maailma uudised

Maroko maailma uudised (MWN) on ingliskeelne e-ajaleht, mille peakorter asub Rabatis ja Washingtonis. See avaldab uudiseid Maroko ja Lähis-Ida piirkonna kohta erinevatel teemadel, nagu kultuur, poliitika, majandus, rahvusvahelised suhted, tehnoloogia, sport ja Lääne-Sahara.

Maroko maailma uudised
TüüpInterneti -ajaleht
Vorminge-ajaleht
Asutaja (d)Samir Bennis
Adnane Bennis
KirjastajaMWN
PeatoimetajaSamir Bennis
ToimetajaPerri Huggins
Toimetaja asetäitjaSafaa Kasraoui
KaastoimetajaMorgan Hekking
Juhtiv toimetajaAdnane Bennis
Uudiste toimetajaPerri Huggins
Ülikooli toimetajaSafaa Kasraoui
Arvamuste toimetajaPerri Huggins
AsutatudMai 2011
KeelInglise
PeakorterWashington DC,
Rabat
Veebisait www .moroccoworldnews .com

MWN [1] asutasid 2011. aasta mais Samir [2] ja Adnane Bennis, [3] kaks tol ajal New Yorgis elanud Maroko venda. 2017. aastal kolis ta USA peakorteri New Yorgist Washingtoni. Aastaks 2019 luges MWN ajakirjanikke ja toimetajaid Washingtonis, New Yorgis, Rabatis, Essaouiras, Fesis ja Hollandis.

Samir Bennis on olnud selle peatoimetaja, poliitiline analüütik ja autor alates selle loomisest. Tegevtoimetaja on olnud Adnane Bennis.


Sisu

Riigi täielik araabia nimi (Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiya) tõlgib Lääne kuningriik. Al Maghrib (tähendus Lääs) kasutatakse tavaliselt. Ajalooliste viidete puhul viitasid ajaloolased Marokole kui Al Maghrib al Aq ş & äge (Kaugeim lääs), eraldades selle ajaloolisest piirkonnast nimega Maghreb. Nimi Maroko paljudes teistes keeltes pärineb endise pealinna Marrakechi nimest.


Sisu

Arheoloogilised väljakaevamised on näidanud Marokos esivanemate inimeste olemasolu Homo sapiens, samuti varajaste inimliikide olemasolu. 400 000-aastase inimese esivanema kivistunud luud avastati Salés 1971. aastal. [2] Mitmete väga varajaste luud Homo sapiens 1991. aastal kaevati välja Jebel Irhoudis, need dateeriti 2017. aastal kaasaegsete tehnikate abil ja leiti olevat vähemalt 300 000 aastat vanad, mis teeb neist vanimad näited kõikjal maailmas avastatud Homo Sapiensist. [11] 2007. aastal avastati Taforaltist väikesed perforeeritud merekarbihelmed, mis on 82 000 aastat vanad, mis teeb neist kõige varasemad teadaolevad tõendid isikliku kaunistuse kohta kõikjal maailmas. [12]

Mesoliitikumi ajal, 20 000–5000 aastat tagasi, meenutas Maroko geograafia rohkem savanni kui praegune kuiv maastik. [13] Kuigi sel perioodil on Maroko asulatest vähe teada, on väljakaevamised mujal Maghrebi piirkonnas näidanud, et ulukite ja metsade arvukus oleks olnud mesoliitikumi jahimeestele ja kogujatele, näiteks Capsia kultuuri omale külalislahke. [14]

Neoliitikumi perioodil, mis järgnes mesoliitikumile, asusid savann jahimeeste ja karjakasvatajate poolt. Nende neoliitikumi küttide ja karjakasvatajate kultuur õitses, kuni piirkond hakkas kliimamuutuste tagajärjel pärast 5000 eKr kuivama. Praeguse Maroko rannikualad varases neoliitikumis jagasid kogu Vahemere piirkonnale omast Cardium keraamikakultuuri. Arheoloogilised väljakaevamised on näidanud, et sellel perioodil toimus piirkonnas veiste kodustamine ja põllukultuuride kasvatamine. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Kalkolüütilisel perioodil ehk vaseajal jõudis peekrikultuur Maroko põhjarannikule. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Kartaago (u 800–300 eKr) Muuda

Foiniiklaste saabumine Maroko rannikule kuulutas paljude sajandite pikkust võõrvõimu valitsemist Maroko põhjaosas. [15] Foiniikia kaupmehed tungisid Vahemere lääneossa enne 8. sajandit e.m.a ja varsti pärast [ millal? ] rajada soola ja maagi hoidlad rannikul ja praeguse Maroko territooriumi jõgedes. [3] Foiniiklaste peamised varajased asulad olid Chellah, Lixus ja Mogador. [16] Teadaolevalt oli Mogador 6. sajandi alguseks e.m.a foiniikia koloonia. [17]

5. sajandiks e.m.a oli Kartaago osariik laiendanud oma hegemooniat suurele osale Põhja -Aafrikast. Kartaago arendas kaubandussuhteid sisemiste berberi hõimudega ja maksis neile iga -aastast austust, et tagada koostöö tooraine kasutamisel [18].

Mauretania (u 300 eKr - umbes 430 pKr) Redigeeri

Mauretania oli iseseisev berberite hõimude kuningriik Põhja-Aafrika Vahemere rannikul, mis vastab tänapäeva Põhja-Marokole umbes 3. sajandist e.m.a. [19] Varaseim teadaolev Mauretania kuningas oli Bocchus I, kes valitses aastatel 110 eKr kuni 81 eKr [ kahtlane - arutage ]. Mõned selle varasemad ajalood on seotud foiniikia ja kartaagolaste asulatega, nagu Lixus ja Chellah. [19] Berberi kuningad valitsesid sisemaad, varjutades Kartaago ja Rooma ranniku eelposte, sageli satelliitidena, võimaldades Rooma valitsemisel eksisteerida. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] See sai Rooma impeeriumi kliendiks aastal 33 eKr, siis oli see täielik provints pärast seda, kui keiser Caligula lasi hukata viimase kuninga, Mauretania Ptolemaiose (39 või 40 pKr). [20]

Rooma kontrollis suurt ja halvasti määratletud territooriumi liitude kaudu hõimudega, mitte sõjalise okupatsiooni kaudu, laiendades oma võimu ainult nendele aladele, mis olid majanduslikult kasulikud või mida oli võimalik kaitsta ilma täiendava tööjõuta. Seega ei ulatunud Rooma valitsus kunagi väljapoole rannikuala tasandiku ja orgude piiratud ala. See strateegiline piirkond oli osa Rooma impeeriumist, mida valitses Mauretania Tingitana ja mille pealinn oli Volubilis. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Rooma keisri Augusti ajal oli Mauretania vasallriik ja selle valitsejad, näiteks Juba II, kontrollisid kõiki Volubilisest lõuna pool asuvaid alasid. Kuid Rooma leegionäride tõhus kontroll jõudis Sala Colonia piirkonda (Salast lõuna pool asuv castra "Exploratio Ad Mercurios" on siiani kõige lõunapoolsem). Mõned ajaloolased usuvad, et Rooma piir jõudis tänapäeva Casablancasse, mida tollal nimetati Anfaks ja mille roomlased olid sadamana asustanud. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Juba II valitsemisajal rajas Augustus Atlandi ookeani ranniku lähedal asuvasse Mauretaniasse kolm kolooniat Rooma kodanikega: Iulia Constantia Zilil, Iulia Valentia Banasa ja Iulia Campestris Babba. Lõpuks leidis Augustus piirkonnast kaksteist kolooniat. [21] Sel perioodil toimus Rooma kontrolli all olev piirkond märkimisväärset majanduslikku arengut, millele aitas kaasa Rooma teede ehitamine. Piirkond ei olnud algselt Rooma kontrolli all ja alles 2. sajandi keskel ehitati Salast lõunasse pärnad, mis ulatusid Volubilisse. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Umbes aastal 278 pKr kolisid roomlased oma piirkonna pealinna Tangerisse ja Volubilis hakkas tähtsust kaotama.

Kristlus tutvustati piirkonda 2. sajandil pKr ning see sai usku pöördunud linnades ja orjade seas ning ka berberi põllumeeste seas. 4. sajandi lõpuks olid romaniseeritud alad ristiusustatud, [ selgitust vaja ] ja sissetung oli tehtud berberi hõimude seas, kes vahel massiliselt pöördusid. Samuti arenesid välja skismaatilised ja ketserlikud liikumised, tavaliselt poliitilise protesti vormidena. Piirkonnas oli ka märkimisväärne juudi elanikkond. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Moslemite vallutamine (u 700) Muuda

Moslemite vallutamine Maghrebi piirkonnas, mis algas 7. sajandi keskel pKr, saavutati 8. sajandi alguses. See tõi piirkonda nii araabia keele kui ka islami. Kuigi Maroko oli osa suuremast islami impeeriumist, organiseeriti see esialgu Ifriqiya abiprovintsina, mille kohalikud kubernerid määras Kairouani moslemikuberner. [23]

Põlisrahvaste berberi hõimud võtsid islami omaks, kuid pidasid kinni oma tavaseadustest. Nad maksid ka makse ja austust uuele moslemi administratsioonile. [24]

Berberi mäss (740–743) Muuda

Aastal 740 pKr puritaanlikest Kharijite agitaatoritest innustades mässas põline berberi elanikkond valitseva Ummayadi kalifaadi vastu. Mäss algas Lääne -Maroko berberi hõimude seas ja levis kiiresti kogu piirkonnas. Kuigi ülestõus taandus aastal 742 pKr, enne kui see jõudis Kairouani väravateni, ei õnnestunud ei Damaskuse Umayyadi valitsejatel ega nende abasidide järglastel oma valitsemist Ifriqiyast läänes asuvatele aladele uuesti kehtestada. Maroko lahkus Umayyadi ja Abbasidide kontrolli alt ning killustus väikeste sõltumatute berberi osariikide kogumiks, nagu Berghwata, Sijilmassa ja Nekor, lisaks Tlemcenile ja Tahertile praeguses Lääne -Alžeerias. [22] Berberid hakkasid kujundama oma versiooni islamist. Mõned, nagu Banu Ifran, säilitasid sideme radikaalsete puritaanlike islamisektidega, teised aga, nagu Berghwata, konstrueerisid uue sünkreetilise usu. [25] [26]

Barghawata (744–1058) Muuda

Barghawatas olid Maroko Atlandi ookeani rannikut asustanud berberi rühmituste konföderatsioon, kes kuulus Masmuda berberite hõimude jaotusse. [22] Pärast liitumist Sufri Kharijite mässuga Marokos Umaijaadide vastu asutasid nad Tarif al-Matghari juhtimisel Atlandi ookeani rannikul Tamesna piirkonnas Safi ja Salé vahel iseseisva riigi (CE 744-1058).

Sijilmasa emiraat (757 - 976) Muuda

Midraridide dünastia ehk Banu Midrar oli berberite dünastia, kes valitses Tafilalti piirkonda ja asutas 757. aastal Sijilmasa linna. [27]

Sijilmasa oli keskaegne Maroko linn ja kaubandusettevõte Sahara kõrbe põhjaservas. Linna varemed asuvad 8 km (5 miili) kaugusel Zizi jõe ääres Tafilalti oaasis Rissani linna lähedal. Linna ajalugu iseloomustasid mitmed järjestikused berberite dünastiate sissetungid. Kuni 14. sajandini oli see Lääne-Sahara-äärse kaubatee põhjapoolse lõpp-punktina keskajal Maghrebi üks tähtsamaid kaubanduskeskusi. [28]

Nekori kuningriik (710–1019) Muuda

Nekori kuningriik oli emiraat, mille keskuseks oli Maroko Rifi piirkond. Selle pealinn asus esialgu Temsamanis ja kolis seejärel Nekorisse. Selle riigi asutas 710 pKr Salih I ibn Mansur Kalifaadi stipendiumi kaudu. Tema juhendamisel võtsid kohalikud berberi hõimud islami omaks, kuid tagandasid ta hiljem ühe nafza hõimu as-Zaydi kasuks. Seejärel muutsid nad meelt ja nimetasid uuesti Ibn Mansuri. Tema dünastia Banū Sālih valitses seda piirkonda kuni 1019.

Aastal 859 allus kuningriik 62 laevajõulisele viikingite rühmitusele, kes võitis Nekoris mauride vägesid, kes olid püüdnud sekkuda nende röövimistesse piirkonnas. Pärast kaheksa päeva Marokos viibimist läksid viikingid tagasi Hispaaniasse ja jätkasid idarannikut. [29]

Idrisidi dünastia (789–974) Muuda

Idrisidide dünastia oli moslemipoliitika, mille keskmes oli Maroko [30], mis valitses aastatel 788–974. Mõned ajaloolased usuvad, et idrisiidid on asutaja Idriss I, Hasan ibn Ali lapselapselaps, järgi esimese asutajad. Maroko osariik. [31]

Idrisidi osariigi asutajad: Idris I ja Idris II Edit

8. sajandi teiseks pooleks olid Maghrebi läänepoolsemad piirkonnad, sealhulgas praegune Maroko, alates aastatel 739–40 alanud Khariji juhitud berberite mässudest olnud Umayyadi kalifaadist tegelikult sõltumatud. [32] [33] Abbasidide kalifaadil pärast 750. aastat ei õnnestunud enam Maroko üle kontrolli taastada. [32]: 41 Idavõimu kukutamine tähendas, et Marokot kontrollisid mitmed kohalikud berberi hõimud ja vürstiriigid, mis sel ajal tekkisid, näiteks Barghwata Konföderatsioon Atlandi ookeani rannikul ja Midraridi emiraat Sijilmasas. [32] [34]

Idrisidide dünastia rajaja oli Idris ibn Abdallah (788–791), [35] kes tõi oma esivanemad tagasi Ali ibn Abi Talibile (suri 661) [35] ja tema abikaasale Fatimahile, islami prohveti Muhamedi tütrele. Ta oli Hasan ibn Ali lapselaps. [36] [34]: 81 Pärast Fakhkhi lahingut Mekas, abatsiidide ja prohvet Muhamedi järeltulijate toetajate vahel, põgenes Idris ibn Abdallah Magribi. Esmalt saabus ta tolleaegsesse Maroko tähtsaimasse linna Tangerisse ja 788. aastaks oli ta asunud elama Volubilisse (araabia keeles tuntud kui Walili). [32]: 51

Võimsad Awraba Berberid Volubilisest võtsid Idrise vastu ja tegid temast oma imaami (usujuhi). [32]: 51 [34]: 81 Awraba hõim oli toetanud Kusaylat tema võitluses Ummayadi armeede vastu 670. ja 680. aastatel. 8. sajandi teiseks pooleks olid nad asunud elama Põhja -Marokosse, kus nende juhi Ishaki baas oli Rooma linnas Volubilis. Selleks ajaks olid Awraba juba moslemid, kuid elasid piirkonnas, kus enamik hõime olid kristlased, juudid, Khariji või paganad. Tundub, et Awraba tervitas Sharifi imaami, et tugevdada nende poliitilist positsiooni. Idris I, kes oli väga aktiivne Awraba poliitilises organisatsioonis, alustas oma autoriteedi kinnitamisega ning püüdis kristlaste ja juutide hõimude alistamise poole. Aastal 789 asutas ta asula Volubilisest kagusse, nn Medinat Fas. Aastal 791 mürgitas mind Idris ja tappis Abbasiidi agent. Kuigi ta ei jätnud meessoost pärijat, sünnitas tema naine Lalla Kanza bint Uqba al-Awrabi vahetult pärast surma talle oma ainsa poja ja järeltulija Idris II. Idrise ustav araablasest endine ori ja kaaslane Rashid kasvatasid poisi üles ja võtsid Awraba nimel endale riigi valitsemisala. Aastal 801 tapsid abashiidid Rashidi. Järgmisel aastal, 11 -aastaselt, kuulutati Awraba poolt Idris II imaamiks. [32]: 51

Kuigi Idris I oli oma volitused laiali levitanud paljudes Põhja -Marokos, kuni lääne poole kuni Tlemcenini, sõltus ta täielikult Awraba juhtkonnast. Idris II alustas oma valitsemist Awraba võimu nõrgenemisega, tervitades Walilis araablaste asunikke ja määrates oma araablasteks kaks araablast. visiir ja qadi. Nii muutis ta end Awraba kaitsealusest nende suverääniks. Awraba juht Ishak vastas, kavandades oma elu vastu Tuneesia aglablastega. Idris reageeris sellega, laskes oma endise kaitsja Ishaki tappa, ja aastal 809 kolis tema valitsuse asukoht Awraba domineerivast Walilist Fesi, kus ta asutas uue asula nimega Al-'Aliya. Idris II (791–828) arendas Fezi linna, mille isa rajas varem berberite turulinnaks. Siin tervitas ta kahte araablaste sisserände lainet: üks 818 Cordobast ja teine ​​824 Aghlabid Tuneesiast, andes Fesile rohkem araabia iseloomu kui teised Maghrebi linnad. Kui Idris II aastal 828 suri, ulatus Idrisidi osariik Lääne -Alžeeriast Lõuna -Marokos Sousini ja oli saanud juhtivaks Maroko osariigiks, edestades Sijilmasa, Barghawata ja Nekori vürstiriike, mis jäid nende kontrolli alla. [32]: 51–52 [34]: 86

Idris II Edit järeltulijad

Dünastia võim kahanes aeglaselt pärast Idris II surma. Tema poja ja järeltulija Muhammadi (828–836) ajal jagati kuningriik seitsme venna vahel, nii et Marokos ja Lääne -Alžeerias tekkis kaheksa Idrisidi osariiki. [37] Muhammad ise hakkas Fesi valitsema, omades ainult nominaalset võimu oma vendade üle. Tema vend Isa, kes sai oma baasist Chellah'is kontrolli Bou Regregi lähedal asuvate Tamesna rannikuäärsete piirkondade üle, mässas kiiresti tema vastu. Muhammad usaldas oma venna Umari, kes oli saanud Rifi ümbruse territooriumid, Isa karistama. Umar ajas Isa edukalt võimult, kes oli sunnitud varjuma Chellahi, ja pöördus seejärel põhja poole, et karistada Tangeris oma teist venda al-Qasimi, sest ta oli varem keeldunud tema ja Muhamediga Isa vastu liitumast. Al-Qasim põgenes Asilahi juurde ja asus elama lähedusse, samas kui Muhammad andis Umarile Tangeri kuberneriks tasu. Pärast Umari surma septembris või oktoobris 835 anti tema pojale Ali ibn Umarile kordamööda kõik isa domeenid. Muhammad ise suri seitse kuud hiljem märtsis või aprillis 836. Tema poeg Ali ibn Muhammad päris oma ametikoha ja valitses 13 aastat (836–849) pädeval viisil, tagades riigi stabiilsuse. Pärast tema surma aastal 849 järgnes talle tema vend Yahya ibn Muhammad (või Yahya I), kellel oli samuti rahumeelne valitsemisaeg. [38]

Selle aja jooksul omandas islami ja araabia kultuur linnades kindluse ning Maroko sai kasu Sahara-tagusest kaubandusest, kus domineerisid moslemite (enamasti berberite) kauplejad. Ka Fesi linn õitses ja sai oluliseks religioosseks keskuseks. [32]: 52 Yahya valitsemisajal saabus rohkem araablastest sisserändajaid ning asutati kuulsad al-Qarawiyyini ja al-Andalusiyyini mošeed. [38] Sellegipoolest andis islami ja araabia kultuur oma mõju tunda vaid linnades - valdav enamus Maroko elanikkonnast kasutas endiselt berberi keeli ning järgis sageli islami heterodokse ja ketserlikke õpetusi. Idrisiidid olid peamiselt linnade valitsejad ja neil oli vähe võimu enamiku riigi elanike üle. [32]: 52

Keeldumine ja langus Muuda

Pärast Yahya I surma aastal 863 järgnes talle tema vähem pädev poeg Yahya II, kes jagas Idrisidi valdkonna taas laiendatud perekondade vahel. Yahya II suri ebaselgetel asjaoludel aastal 866 pärast oma paleest põgenemist. Pärast korrarikkumist Fesis võttis võimu üle tema nõbu Ali ibn Umar. [38] Aastal 868 moodustasid Abd al-Razzaqi juhtimisel Fesi piirkonna berberi Khariji sufri hõimud Madyuna, Ghayata ja Miknasa ühise rinde idrisiidide vastu. Oma baasist Sefrous suutsid nad alistada Ali ibn Umari ja hõivata Fesi. Fes keeldus aga alistumast ja teine ​​Yahya, al-Qasimi poeg, suutis linna tagasi võtta ja kehtestada end uue valitsejana Yahya III-na. Nii oli valitsev joon läinud Muhamedi poegadelt Umari pojale ja nüüd al-Qasimi poegadele. [32]: 52 [38]

Yahya III valitses kogu Idrisidi kuningriigi üle ja jätkas sufriste ründamist. Aastal 905 suri ta aga lahingus teise pereliikme Yahya ibn Idris ibn Umari (Umari lapselaps) vastu, kes võttis seejärel võimu Yahya IV -na. [38] Siinkohal aga hakkasid idas olevad fatimiidid Marokosse sekkuma, lootes oma mõju laiendada. Aastal 917 ründasid Miknasa ja selle juht Masala ibn Habus, tegutsedes oma liitlaste Fatimid nimel, Fesi ja sundisid Yahya IV tunnistama Fatimiidide ülimuslikkust, enne kui ta 919 [38] [40] või 921. [32]: 63 järgnes tema nõbu Musa ibn Abul 'Afiya, kellele oli juba ülejäänud riigi üle juhtimine antud. Idrisid Hassan I al-Hajam, al-Qasimi pojapoeg, suutis alates 925. aastast Fezi kontrolli alla saada, kuid aastal 927 tuli Musa tagasi, vallutas Hassani ja tappis ta, tähistades viimast korda, kui idrisiidid Fesis võimu omasid. [38]

Fesist alates hakkasid Miknasad Idrisidide perekonda taga ajama kogu Marokos. Perekond varjus Hajar an-Nasri kindlusesse Põhja-Marokos, kus Miknasa neid piiras. [38] Varsti pärast seda puhkes Miknasade seas aga kodusõda, kui Musa vahetas 931. aastal truudust Cordoba omajadele, püüdes saavutada rohkem iseseisvust. Fatimiidid saatsid Masala ibn Habuse õepoeg Humayd ibn Yasali (või Hamidi [32]) Musaga vastamisi, võites ta aastal 933 ja sundides ta uuesti rivvi langema. [38] [32]: 63 Idrisiidid kasutasid olukorda ära, et murda oma kindluse piiramine ja alistada Mikanasa Zenata väed. Kui aga fatimiidid olid kadunud, loobus Musa taas oma autoriteedist ja tundis ära Umayyadi kaliifi. Fatimiidid saatsid oma kindral Maysuri talle uuesti vastu ja seekord põgenes ta. Idrisiidid jälitasid teda ja tapsid ta. [38]

Pärast seda asusid idrisiidid Loode-Maroko Rifi piirkonnas Jbala hõimude hulka, kus nad ehitasid osaliselt üles oma võimubaasi Hajar an-Nasrist, tunnistades vaheldumisi kas Cordoba Umayyads (Abd ar-Rahman III juhtimisel) või fatimiidid ülemvõimudena. . [38] Al-Qasim al-Gannoun ibn Muhammad valitses siin aastatel 938–948 fatimiidide nimel. [38] [40] Tema poeg ja järeltulija Ahmad, tuntud kui Abul-Aysh, tundis ära hoopis Umayyad, kuid sõitis neile vastu, kui keeldus neil Tangerit hõivamast. Ta piirati seal ja sunniti taanduma, jättes alles vaid al-Basra ja Asilahi alad, samal ajal kui Umajad hõivasid ülejäänud Põhja-Maroko. [38] Lõpuks lahkus ta Al-Andalusesse, jättes 954. aastal uueks juhiks oma venna Hasan ibn al-Qasim al-Gannouni. [38] [40] Aastal 958 saatsid Fatimiidid Marokosse tungima uue kindrali Jawhari. Tema edu sundis idriside jälle Fatimidide ülemvõimu vastu võtma. [38] [32]: 75 Varsti pärast seda, kui Jawhar ja fatimiidid olid hõivatud Egiptuse kontrolli alla võtmisega, tulid Umajad tagasi. Aastal 973 tungis nende kindral Ghalib Marokosse. [32] Idrisiidid saadeti oma territooriumilt välja ja al-Hasan koos paljude teiste idrisiidide või nende poegadega võeti 974. aastal Cordoba pantvangi. [38] Ülejäänud idrotiidid Marokos tunnistasid Umayyadi valitsemist. [32] Al-Hasan saadeti hiljem Cordobast välja ja põgenes Egiptusesse, mis oli nüüd Fatimiidi võimu all. Aastal 979 naasis Ifriqiya fatimidide kuberner Buluggin ibn Ziri (pärast seda, kui Fatimidi kaliifid said pealinna Kairosse), et alistada Umayyads ja kehtestada Fatimidi ülemvõim Lääne -Maghrebis. Aastal 985 [40] naasis ta Fatimidi toel Marokosse, kuid samal aastal sai ta al-Mansuri saadetud teise Umayyadi kindrali käest lüüa ja seejärel mõrvati teel Cordobasse. [38] Sellega lõppes Idrisidide dünastia lõplikult. Umajad pidasid kontrolli Põhja -Maroko üle kuni nende kalifaadi kokkuvarisemiseni 11. sajandi alguses. Pärast seda domineerisid Marokos erinevad Zenata berberi hõimud. [34]: 91 [32]: 82 Kuni Sanhaja Almoravidide tõusuni hiljem sajandil kontrollisid Maghrawad Fesi, Sijilmasat ja Aghmatit, samal ajal kui Banu Ifranid valitsesid Tlemceni, Salé (Chellah) ja Tadla piirkonna üle. [34]: 91

Pärandmuudatused

Vaatamata võimult langemisele sünnitasid idrisiidid siiski palju saarlaste perekondi, kes elasid sajandeid edasi. Mõned marokolased väidavad tänaseni, et nad pärinevad neilt. [38] 11. [38] [41] Fesis ja Moulay Idrissi linnas (Volubilise lähedal) kujunesid Idris II ja Idris I hauakambrid lõpuks olulisteks religioosseteks kompleksideks ja palverännakukohtadeks (nt Moulay Idris II Zawiya). [42] [43] Mitmed silmapaistvad sharifiapered Fezis tõid oma suguvõsa välja Idris I -le, [44]: 488 ja mõned neist mängisid rolli Idris II Zawiya säilitamisel või taastamisel linnas. [45]

Al-Andalus Muuda

Abd al-Mu'min astus seejärel üles Mahdi Ibn Tumarti leitnandina. Aastatel 1130 kuni tema surmani aastal 1163 ei juurutanud Abd al-Mu'min mitte ainult murabiite (Almoravids), vaid laiendas oma võimu kogu Põhja-Aafrikas kuni Egiptuseni, saades 1149. aastal Marrakeši amiiriks.

Al-Andalus jälgis Aafrika saatust. Aastatel 1146–1173 võitsid almohadid järk -järgult muurabite kontrolli Ibeeria mauride vürstiriikide üle. Almohadid viisid moslemite Ibeeria pealinna Córdobast Sevillasse. Nad rajasid sinna suure mošee, mille torn Giralda püstitati 1184. aastal, tähistamaks Ya'qub I ühinemist. Almohadid ehitasid sinna ka Al-Muwarak-nimelise palee tänapäevase Sevilla Alcázari kohale.

Almohadi vürstidel oli pikem ja silmapaistvam karjäär kui Murabitidel. Abd al-Mumini järeltulijad Abu Yaqub Yusuf (Yusuf I, valitses 1163–1184) ja Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (Yaʻqūb I, valitses 1184–1199) olid mõlemad võimekad mehed. Esialgu sundis nende valitsus paljusid juute ja kristlasi aitama varjuda kasvavatesse kristlikesse osariikidesse Portugali, Kastiilia ja Aragoni. Lõppkokkuvõttes muutusid nad vähem fanaatilisteks kui muurabitid ja Ya'qub al-Mansur oli kõrgete saavutustega mees, kes kirjutas hea araabia stiili ja kaitses filosoof Averroesi. Tema pealkiri "al-Manṣūr"(" Võitja ") teenis tema võit Alarcose lahingus Kastiilia Alfonso VIII üle (1195).

Alates Yusuf II ajast aga valitsesid almohadid oma religioonikaaslasi Ibeerias ja Põhja-Aafrika keskosas leitnantide kaudu, nende domineerimist väljaspool Marokot käsitleti provintsidena. Kui Almohadi emiirid väina ületasid, pidi see juhtima kristlaste vastu džihaadi ja naasma seejärel Marokosse. [46]

Ootusaastad Muuda

Aastal 1212 alistas al-Mansuri järeltulija Almohadi kaliif Muhammad 'al-Nasir' (1199–1214) pärast algselt edukat edasiliikumist põhja poole nelja Kastiilia, Aragóni, Navarra ja kristliku kuninga liit. Portugalis, Las Navas de Tolosa lahingus Sierra Morenas. Lahing murdis Almohaadi edasiliikumise, kuid kristlikud jõud jäid liiga organiseerimata, et sellest kohe kasu saada.

Enne surma 1213. aastal määras al-Nasir oma noore kümneaastase poja järgmiseks kaliifiks Yusuf II "al-Mustansiriks". Almohadid läbisid noore kaliifi jaoks tõhusa valitsemisperioodi, kus võimu teostasid vanemate pereliikmete, paleebürokraatide ja juhtivate aadlike oligarhia. Almohaadi ministrid olid ettevaatlikud, pidades kristlike kuningriikidega läbirääkimisi mitme vaherahu üle, mis jäid järgnevaks viieteistkümneks aastaks enam-vähem paika (Alcácer do Sali kaotus Portugali kuningriigile 1217. aastal oli erand).

1224. aasta alguses suri nooruslik kaliif õnnetuses, ilma pärijateta. Palee bürokraadid Marrakeshis eesotsas wazir Uthman ibn Jam'i kavandas kiiresti oma eaka vanaonu Abd al-Wahid I 'al-Makhlu' valimise uueks Almohadi kalifiks. Kuid kiire ametisse nimetamine häiris perekonna teisi harusid, eriti hilise al-Nasiri vendi, kes valitsesid Al-Andaluus. Väljakutse esitas kohe üks neist, toonane Murcia kuberner, kes kuulutas end kaliif Abdallah al-Adiliks. Vendade abiga haaras ta kiiresti kontrolli al-Andaluse üle. Tema peanõunik, varjuline Abu Zayd ibn Yujjan võttis kasutusele tema kontaktid Marrakechis ning kindlustas Abd al-Wahid I langemise ja mõrva ning al-Jami'i klanni väljasaatmise.

Seda riigipööret on iseloomustatud kui kivikest, mis al-Andaluse lõpuks murdis. See oli esimene sisemine riigipööre almohadide seas. Almohadi klann, vaatamata aeg -ajalt tekkinud erimeelsustele, oli alati jäänud tihedalt kokku ja lojaalselt dünastilise eesõiguse taha. Kalifa al-Adili dünastilise ja põhiseadusliku väärikuse mõrvarlik rikkumine rikkus tema vastuvõetavuse teistele Almohadile šeigid. Üks kurjategijatest oli tema nõbu Abd Allah al-Bayyasi ("Baezan"), Jaéni almohadi kuberner, kes võttis endale käputäie järgijaid ja lõi Baeza ümbruse mägede poole. Ta rajas mässuliste laagri ja sõlmis liidu seni vaikse Kastiilia Ferdinand III -ga. Tema suuremat prioriteeti tajus Marrakech, kus loobuti Almohadist šeikoli kogunenud Yahya, teise al-Nasiri poja taha, pööras al-Adil sellele väikesele valede bändile vähe tähelepanu.

Reconquista Edit

Aastal 1225 laskus Abd Allah al-Bayyasi mässuliste rühm suure Kastilia armee saatel mägedest alla, piirates selliseid linnu nagu Jaén ja Andújar. Nad ründasid kogu Jaéni, Cordova ja Vega de Granada piirkonda ning enne aasta lõppu oli al-Bayyasi end Cordova linna sisse seadnud. Tundes võimsusvaakumit, tellisid nii Leóni Alfonso IX kui ka Portugali Sancho II oportunistlikult reidid samal aastal Andaluusia territooriumile. Kuna Almohadi relvad, mehed ja sularaha saadeti Marokosse, et aidata kaliif al-Adilil end Marrakeshis kehtestada, oli ootamatu pealetungi peatamiseks vähe võimalusi. 1225. aasta lõpus jõudsid Portugali rüüstajad üllatava kergusega Sevilla ümbrusesse. Teades, et neid on ülekaalus, keeldusid linna Almohadi kubernerid Portugali rüüstajatega silmitsi seismast, ajendades Sevilla vastikut elanikkonda võtma asjad enda kätte, tõstma miilitsa ja minema ise põllule. Tulemuseks oli tõeline veresaun-Portugali relvastatud mehed niitsid kergesti maha halvasti relvastatud linnarahva. Väidetavalt tapeti enne Sevilla müüre tuhandeid, võib -olla isegi 20 000 inimest. Sarnane katastroof tabas samal aastal sarnast populaarset maksu Murcianselt Aspelt. Kuid kristlikud rüüstajad olid peatatud Cáceresis ja Requenas. Need sündmused raputasid tugevalt usaldust Almohaadi juhtkonna vastu-katastroofides süüdistati viivitamatult kaliif al-Adili tähelepanu hajameelsust ning tema leitnantide ebakompetentsust ja argust.

Kuid al-Adili varandus sai lühikeseks ajaks poi. Kastiilia abi eest oli al-Bayyasi andnud Ferdinand III-le kolm strateegilist piirilinnust: Baños de la Encina, Salvatierra (vana Calatrava ordulinn Ciudad Reali lähedal) ja Capilla. Kuid Capilla keeldus neid üle andmast, sundides kastillasi pikale ja raskele piiramisele. Väikese Capilla vapper trots ja al-Bayyasi laevaliikluse vaatemäng Kastiilia piirajatele šokeeris andaluuslasi ja muutis meeleolu tagasi Almohaadi kaliifi poole. Cordovas puhkes rahvaülestõus-al-Bayyasi tapeti ja pea saadeti trofeedena Marrakechi. Kuid kaliif al-Adil ei rõõmustanud selle võidu üle kaua-ta mõrvati 1227. aasta oktoobris Marrakechis Yahya partisanide poolt, kes said kohe uue Almohaadi kaliifi Yahya "al-Mu'tasimi" tunnustuse.

Almohadide Andaluusia haru keeldus seda sündmuste käiku aktsepteerimast. Al-Adili vend, siis Sevillas, kuulutas end uueks Almohaadi kaliifiks Abd al-Ala Idris I 'al-Ma'muniks. Ta ostis Ferdinand III -lt 300 000 eest vaherahu maravedis, võimaldades tal korraldada ja saata suurem osa Hispaania Almohadi armeest üle väina 1228. aastal, et Yahyale vastu astuda.

Samal aastal uuendasid portugallased ja leonelased oma rünnakuid sügavale moslemite territooriumile, põhimõtteliselt kontrollimata. Tundes, et Almohad ei suutnud neid kaitsta, toimusid rahvalikud ülestõusud kogu Al-Andaluus. Linn linna järel kukutas oma õnnetud Almohadi kubernerid ja paigaldas nende asemele kohalikud vägilased. Nende mässude keskseks figuuriks tõusis Murcia vägilane Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami, kes väitis, et on pärit Saragossa vana taifat valitsenud Banu Hudi dünastiast, tõrjudes süstemaatiliselt Almohaadi garnisonid Kesk-Hispaania kaudu välja. Oktoobris 1228, mil Hispaania oli peaaegu kõik kaotanud, hülgas al-Ma'mun Sevilla, võttes Almohadi armeest allesjäänud vähe kaasa Marokosse. Ibn Hud saatis kohe saadikud kaugesse Bagdadi, et pakkuda tunnustust Abbasiidi kaliifile, ehkki võttis endale peaaegu kaliifli tiitli "al-Mutawwakil".

Al-Ma'muni lahkumine 1228. aastal tähistas Hispaanias Almohaadi ajastu lõppu. Ibn Hud ja teised kohalikud Andaluusia vägimehed ei suutnud peatada kristlaste rünnakute üleujutust, mille käivitasid peaaegu igal aastal Portugali Sancho II, Alfonso IX Leónist, Ferdinand III Kastiliast ja James I Aragoniast. The next twenty years saw a massive advance in the Christian reconquista – the old great Andalusian citadels fell in a grand sweep: Mérida and Badajoz in 1230 (to Leon), Majorca in 1230 (to Aragon), Beja in 1234 (to Portugal), Cordova in 1236 (to Castile), Valencia in 1238 (to Aragon), Niebla-Huelva in 1238 (to Leon), Silves in 1242 (to Portugal), Murcia in 1243 (to Castile), Jaén in 1246 (to Castile), Alicante in 1248 (to Castile), culminating in the fall of the greatest of Andalusian cities, the ex-Almohad capital of Seville, into Christian hands in 1248. Ferdinand III of Castile entered Seville as a conqueror on December 22, 1248.

The Andalusians were helpless before this onslaught. Ibn Hudd had attempted to check the Leonese advance early on, but most of his Andalusian army was destroyed at the battle of Alange in 1230. Ibn Hud scrambled to move remaining arms and men to save threatened or besieged Andalusian citadels, but with so many attacks at once, it was a hopeless endeavor. After Ibn Hud's death in 1238, some of the Andalusian cities, in a last-ditch effort to save themselves, offered themselves once again to the Almohads, but to no avail. The Almohads would not return.

With the departure of the Almohads, the Nasrid dynasty ("Banū Naṣr", Arabic: بنو نصر ‎) rose to power in Granada. After the great Christian advance of 1228–1248, the Emirate of Granada was practically all that remained of old al-Andalus. Some of the captured citadels (e.g. Murcia, Jaen, Niebla) were reorganized as tributary vassals for a few more years, but most were annexed by the 1260s. Granada alone would remain independent for an additional 250 years, flourishing as the new center of al-Andalus.

Collapse in the Maghreb Edit

In their African holdings, the Almohads encouraged the establishment of Christians even in Fez, and after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they occasionally entered into alliances with the kings of Castile. They were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily. The history of their decline differs from that of the Almoravids, whom they had displaced. They were not assailed by a great religious movement, but lost territories, piecemeal, by the revolt of tribes and districts. Their most effective enemies were the Banu Marin (Marinids) who founded the next dynasty. The last representative of the line, Idris II, 'al-Wathiq', was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269.

Fatimid, Umayyad and Zenata polities (c. 900 – c. 1060) Edit

This equilibrium was upset in the early 900s, when the Fatimid dynasty arrived in the Maghreb. Not long after seizing power in Ifriqiya, the Fatimids invaded Morocco, conquering both Fez and Sijilmassa. Morocco was fragmented in the aftermath, with Fatimid governors, Idrisid loyalists, new puritan groups and interventionists from Umayyad al-Andalus all fighting over the region. Opportunistic local governors sold and re-sold their support to the highest bidder. In 965, the Fatimid caliph al-Muizz invaded Morocco one last time and succeeded in establishing some order. Soon after, however, the Fatimids shifted their empire eastward to Egypt, with a new capital in Cairo. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

The Fatimids had assigned the Zirids, a Zenaga Berber clan centered in Ifriqiya, to watch their western dominions. The Zirids, however, were unable to prevent Morocco from spinning out of their control and crumbling into the hands of a collection of local Zenata Berber chieftains, most of them clients of the Caliph of Cordoba, such as the Maghrawa in the region of Fez and itinerant rivals, the Banu Ifran to the east. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

After 1060 a few Berber dynasties rose to power south of the Atlas Mountains and expanded their rule northward, replacing local rulers. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] The 11th and 12th centuries witnessed the founding of several significant Berber dynasties led by religious reformers, each dynasty based on a tribal confederation that dominated the Maghreb and Al-Andalus for more than 200 years. These were the Berber dynasties of the Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids and Wattasids. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Almoravid dynasty (c. 1060 – 1147) Edit

The Almoravid dynasty (c.1060–1147) originated among the Lamtuna nomadic Berber tribe belonging to the Sanhaja. They succeeded in unifying Morocco after it had been divided among several Zenata principalities in the late 10th century, and annexed the Emirate of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata (Tamesna) into their realm.

Under Yusuf ibn Tashfin, the Almoravids were invited by the Muslim taifa princes of Al-Andalus to defend their territories from the Christian kingdoms. Their involvement was crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus. After having succeeded in repelling Christian forces in 1086, Yusuf returned to Iberia in 1090 and annexed most of the major taifas. [48]

Almoravid power began to decline in the first half of the 12th century, as the dynasty was weakened after its defeat at the battle of Ourique and because of the agitation of the Almohads. The conquest of the city of Marrakech by the Almohads in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty. However, fragments of the Almoravids (the Banu Ghaniya) continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands and in Tunisia.

The Berbers of the Tamazgha in the early Middle Ages could be roughly classified into three major groups: the Zenata across the north, the Masmuda concentrated in central Morocco, and the Sanhaja, clustered in two areas: the western part of the Sahara and the hills of the eastern Maghreb. [49] [50] The eastern Sanhaja included the Kutama Berbers, who had been the base of the Fatimid rise in the early 10th century, and the Zirid dynasty, who ruled Ifriqiya as vassals of the Fatimids after the latter moved to Egypt in 972. The western Sanhaja were divided into several tribes: the Gazzula and the Lamta in the Draa valley and the foothills of the Anti-Atlas range further south, encamped in the western Sahara, were the Massufa, the Lamtuna and the Banu Warith and most southerly of all, the Gudala, in littoral Mauritania down to the borderlands of the Senegal River.

The western Sanhaja had been converted to Islam some time in the 9th century. They were subsequently united in the 10th century and, with the zeal of new converts, launched several campaigns against the "Sudanese" (pagan peoples of sub-Saharan Africa). [51] Under their king Tinbarutan ibn Usfayshar, the Sanhaja Lamtuna erected (or captured) the citadel of Awdaghust, a critical stop on the trans-Saharan trade route. After the collapse of the Sanhaja union, Awdagust passed over to the Ghana empire and the trans-Saharan routes were taken over by the Zenata Maghrawa of Sijilmassa. The Maghrawa also exploited this disunion to dislodge the Sanhaja Gazzula and Lamta out of their pasturelands in the Sous and Draa valleys. Around 1035, the Lamtuna chieftain Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Tifat (alias Tarsina), tried to reunite the Sanhaja desert tribes, but his reign lasted less than three years.

Around 1040, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, a chieftain of the Gudala (and brother-in-law of the late Tarsina), went on pilgrimage to Mecca. On his return, he stopped by Kairouan in Ifriqiya, where he met Abu Imran al-Fasi, a native of Fes and a jurist and scholar of the Sunni Maliki school. At this time, Ifriqiya was in ferment. The Zirid ruler al-Muizz ibn Badis, was openly contemplating breaking with his Shi'ite Fatimid overlords in Cairo, and the jurists of Kairouan were agitating for him to do so. Within this heady atmosphere, Yahya and Abu Imran fell into conversation on the state of the faith in their western homelands, and Yahya expressed his disappointment at the lack of religious education and negligence of Islamic law among his southern Sanhaja people. With Abu Imran's recommendation, Yahya ibn Ibrahim made his way to the ribat of Waggag ibn Zelu in the Sous valley of southern Morocco, to seek out a Maliki teacher for his people. Waggag assigned him one of his residents, Abdallah ibn Yasin.

Abdallah ibn Yasin was a Gazzula Berber, and probably a convert rather than a born Muslim. His name can be read as "son of Ya Sin" (the title of the 36th Sura of the Qur'an), suggesting he had obliterated his family past and was "re-born" of the Holy Book. [52] Ibn Yasin certainly had the ardor of a puritan zealot his creed was mainly characterized by a rigid formalism and a strict adherence to the dictates of the Qur'an, and the Orthodox tradition. [53] (Chroniclers such as al-Bakri allege Ibn Yasin's learning was superficial.) Ibn Yasin's initial meetings with the Gudala people went poorly. As he had more ardor than depth, Ibn Yasin's arguments were disputed by his audience. He responded to questioning with charges of apostasy and handed out harsh punishments for the slightest deviations. The Gudala soon had enough and expelled him almost immediately after the death of his protector, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, sometime in the 1040s.

Ibn Yasin, however, found a more favorable reception among the neighboring Lamtuna people. [53] Probably sensing the useful organizing power of Ibn Yasin's pious fervor, the Lamtuna chieftain Yahya ibn Umar al-Lamtuni invited the man to preach to his people. The Lamtuna leaders, however, kept Ibn Yasin on a careful leash, forging a more productive partnership between them. Invoking stories of the early life of Muhammad, Ibn Yasin preached that conquest was a necessary addendum to Islamicization, that it was not enough to merely adhere to God's law, but necessary to also destroy opposition to it. In Ibn Yasin's ideology, anything and everything outside of Islamic law could be characterized as "opposition". He identified tribalism, in particular, as an obstacle. He believed it was not enough to urge his audiences to put aside their blood loyalties and ethnic differences, and embrace the equality of all Muslims under the Sacred Law, it was necessary to make them do so. For the Lamtuna leadership, this new ideology dovetailed with their long desire to refound the Sanhaja union and recover their lost dominions. In the early 1050s, the Lamtuna, under the joint leadership of Yahya ibn Umar and Abdallah ibn Yasin—soon calling themselves the al-Murabitin (Almoravids)—set out on a campaign to bring their neighbors over to their cause.

Marinids dynasty Edit

Although the Marinids claimed Arab ancestry [54] through a North Arabian tribe, [55] they were of Berber origin. Following the arrival of the Arab Bedouins in North Africa in the middle of the eleventh century, the Marinids were obliged to leave their lands in the region of Biskra, in present-day Algeria. [56] [57] They first frequented the area between Sijilmasa and Figuig, present-day Morocco, [58] [59] at times reaching as far as the Zab [fr] , present-day Algeria. [60] They would move seasonally from the Figuig oasis to the Moulouya River basin. [61] Following the arrival of Arab tribes in the area in the 11th-12th centuries, the Marinids moved to the north-west of present-day Algeria, [58] before entering en-masse into Morocco by the beginning of the 13th century. [62]

The Marinids took their name from their ancestor, Marin ibn Wartajan al-Zenati. [63]

Rise Edit

After arriving in present-day Morocco, they initially submitted to the Almohad dynasty, which was at the time the ruling house. After successfully contributing to the Battle of Alarcos, in central Spain, the tribe started to assert itself as a political power. [34] Starting in 1213, they began to tax farming communities of today's north-eastern Morocco (the area between Nador and Berkane). The relationship between them and the Almohads became strained and starting in 1215, there were regular outbreaks of fighting between the two parties. In 1217, they tried to occupy the eastern part of present-day Morocco, but they were expelled, pulling back and settling in the eastern Rif mountains where they remained for nearly 30 years. During their stay in the Rif, the Almohad state suffered huge blows, losing large territories to the Christians in Spain, while the Hafsids of Ifriqia broke away in 1229, followed by the Zayyanid dynasty of Tlemcen in 1235.

Between 1244 and 1248 the Marinids were able to take Taza, Rabat, Salé, Meknes and Fez from the weakened Almohads. [64] The Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub (1259–1286) captured Marrakech in 1269. [65]

Apogee Edit

After the Nasrids of Granada ceded the town of Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile. The Marinid dynasty then tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar.

It was in this period that the Spanish Christians were first able to take the fighting to mainland present-day Morocco: in 1260 and 1267 they attempted an invasion, but both attempts were defeated. After gaining a foothold in Spain, the Marinids became active in the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. To gain absolute control of the trade in the Strait of Gibraltar, from their base at Algeciras they started the conquest of several Spanish towns: by the year 1294 they had occupied Rota, Tarifa and Gibraltar.

In 1276 they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their administrative and military centre. While Fes had been a prosperous city throughout the Almohad period, even becoming the largest city in the world during that time, [66] it was in the Marinid period that Fes reached its golden age, a period which marked the beginning of an official, historical narrative for the city. [67] [68] It is from the Marinid period that Fes' reputation as an important intellectual centre largely dates, they established the first madrasas in the city and country. [69] [70] [71] The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. [72]

Despite internal infighting, Abu Said Uthman II (r. 1310–1331) initiated huge construction projects across the land. Several madrasas were built, the Al-Attarine Madrasa being the most famous. The building of these madrasas were necessary to create a dependent bureaucratic class, in order to undermine the marabouts and Sharifian elements.

The Marinids also strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into their territory. In 1260, Castilian forces raided Salé and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion, but the Marinids repelled them.

At the height of their power, during the rule of Abu al-Hasan Ali (r. 1331–1348), the Marinid army was large and disciplined. It consisted of 40,000 Zenata cavalry, while Arab nomads contributed to the cavalry and Andalusians were included as archers. The personal bodyguard of the sultan consisted of 7,000 men, and included Christian, Kurdish and Black African elements. [73] Under Abu al-Hasan another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb. In 1337 the Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsid empire in Ifriqiya, which made him master of a huge territory, which spanned from southern present-day Morocco to Tripoli. However, within the next year, a revolt of Arab tribes in southern Tunisia made them lose their eastern territories. The Marinids had already suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340, and finally had to withdraw from Andalusia, only holding on to Algeciras until 1344.

In 1348 Abu al-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris, who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, he was strangled by his own vizir in 1358, after which the dynasty began to decline.

Keeldu muutmisest

After the death of Abu Inan Faris in 1358, the real power lay with the viziers, while the Marinid sultans were paraded and forced to succeed each other in quick succession. The county was divided and political anarchy set in, with different viziers and foreign powers supporting different factions. In 1359 Hintata tribesmen from the High Atlas came down and occupied Marakesh, capital of their Almohad ancestors, which they would govern independently until 1526. To the south of Marakesh, Sufi mystics claimed autonomy, and in the 1370s Azemmour broke off under a coalition of merchants and Arab clan leaders of the Banu Sabih. To the east, the Zianid and Hafsid families reemerged and to the north, the Europeans were taking advantage of this instability by attacking the coast. Meanwhile, unruly wandering Arab Bedouin tribes increasingly spread anarchy, which accelerated the decline of the empire.

In the 15th century, it was hit by a financial crisis, after which the state had to stop financing the different marabouts and Sharifian families, which had previously been useful instruments in controlling different tribes. The political support of these marabouts and Sharifians halted, and it splintered into different entities. In 1399 Tetouan was taken and its population was massacred and in 1415 the Portuguese captured Ceuta. After the sultan Abdalhaqq II (1421–1465) tried to break the power of the Wattasids, he was executed.

Marinid rulers after 1420 came under the control of the Wattasids, who exercised a regency as Abd al-Haqq II became Sultan one year after his birth. The Wattasids however refused to give up the Regency after Abd al-Haqq came to age. [74]

In 1459, Abd al-Haqq II managed a massacre of the Wattasid family, breaking their power. His reign, however, brutally ended as he was murdered during the 1465 revolt. [75] This event saw the end of the Marinid dynasty as Muhammad ibn Ali Amrani-Joutey, leader of the Sharifs, was proclaimed Sultan in Fes. He was in turn overthrown in 1471 by Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya, one of the two the surviving Wattasids from the 1459 massacre, who instigated the Wattasid dynasty.


TIMELINE

7th and 8th Centuries AD - Arab invasion Idris founds the first major Muslim dynasty.

10-17th Centuries - Dynasties and religious movements come and go, including the Almoravid movement which at its peak controlled Morocco and parts of present-day Algeria and Spain.

1904 - France and Spain carve out zones of influence.

1912 - Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Treaty of Fez.

1956 - End of French protectorate after unrest and strong nationalist sentiment. Spain keeps its two coastal enclaves. Sultan Mohammed becomes king in 1957.

1961 - Death of King Mohammed King Hassan II comes to power.

1975-76 - Morocco annexes Western Sahara, but faces an ongoing guerrilla battle for independence from local Saharawi people.

1998 - Morocco's first opposition-led government comes to power.


Casablanca bombings

2003 May - More than 40 killed when suicide bombers attack several sites in Casablanca, including a Spanish restaurant and Jewish community centre.

2004 February - Powerful earthquake hits the north more than 500 people are killed.

2004 July - Free trade agreement with the US comes into effect. It follows Washington's designation of Morocco as a major non-Nato ally.

2005 September-October - Hundreds of African migrants try to storm Morocco's borders with the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. Morocco deports hundreds of the illegal migrants.

2005 December - Truth commission investigating human rights abuses during the rule of King Hassan II says 592 people were killed between 1956-99.

2006 January - Spanish Premier Zapatero visits the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. He's the first Spanish leader in 25 years to make an official visit to the territories.

2007 April - Three suspected suicide bombers blow themselves up in Casablanca, a few weeks after a suicide blast in an internet cafe weeks earlier.

Two suicide bombers blow themselves up outside US diplomatic offices in Casablanca.

Morocco unveils an autonomy blueprint for Western Sahara to the United Nations. Independence movement Polisario rejects the plan and puts forwards its own proposal.

2007 June - Morocco and the Polisario Front hold UN-sponsored talks in New York but fail to come to any agreement.

2007 September - Parliamentary elections. The conservative Istiqlal party, a member of the ruling coalition, wins the most votes.

2007 November - Spanish King Juan Carlos visits Ceuta and Melilla, angering Morocco which demands the return of the enclaves.


Moroccan Sahara: There is Need within AU To Understand Historical Facts – CEDS –

Within the African Union, there is the need for a strategy that would make it possible to understand the historical facts linked to the issue of the Moroccan Sahara, said director general of the Center for Diplomatic and Strategic Studies (CEDS), Socrate Diallo. “At the level of the AU, all those who are favorable to the Moroccan issue must put in place a strategy of influence which allows everyone to understand the historical fact that we are, in this case, in a territory which was dismembered” in the days of colonization, he told MAP, on the sidelines of a sub-regional seminar organized, on Wednesday, by the Pan-African Strategies Institute (IPS), a Senegalese Think Tank, on the theme “Thinking about the Sahara Question and promoting innovative solutions”. “The question of the southern Moroccan provinces can only be understood from the angle of the broad autonomy project proposed by Morocco and which has been largely consolidated by the constitutional reform which released all the energies and synergies and which has allowed all the provinces of the Kingdom, including those in the south, to experience extraordinary economic and social dynamics,” he said. Any other attempt will only bring back this ideological dialectic between east and west, and continue having an absurd and distorting coverage of the reality,” underlined Diallo. The only perspective to get out of this confusion created by the AU is for this bloc to disappear as long as it is not in a position to resolve domestic issues and in relation to which it appeals to foreign powers”, he said, noting that “this Union is not credible and this opens the way to manipulation by corruption”.


Morocco News & Current Events

In 1912, the sultan of Morocco, Moulay Abd al-Hafid, permitted French protectorate status. Nationalism grew during World War II. Sultan Muhammed V was deposed by the French in 1953 and replaced by his uncle, but nationalist agitation forced his return in 1955. In 1956, France and Spain recognized the independence and sovereignty of Morocco. At his death on Feb. 26, 1961, Muhammed V's son succeeded him as King Hassan II. In the 1990s, King Hassan promulgated ?Hassanian democracy,? which allowed for significant political freedom while at the same time retaining ultimate power for the monarch. In Aug. 1999, King Hassan II died after 38 years on the throne and his son, Prince Sidi Muhammed, was crowned King Muhammed VI. Since then, Muhammed VI has pledged to make the political system more open, allow freedom of expression, and support economic reform. He has also advocated more rights for women, a position opposed by Islamic fundamentalists. The entrenched political elite and the military have also been leery of some reform proposals. With about 20% of the population living in dire poverty, economic expansion is a primary goal.

Morocco's Occupation of Western Sahara

Morocco's occupation of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) has been repeatedly criticized by the international community. In the 1970s, tens of thousands of Moroccans crossed the border into Spanish Sahara to back their government's contention that the northern part of the territory was historically part of Morocco. Spain, which had controlled the territory since 1912, withdrew in 1976, creating a power vacuum that was filled by Morocco in the north and Mauritania in the south. When Mauritania withdrew in Aug. 1979, Morocco overran the remainder of the territory. A rebel group, the Polisario Front, has fought against Morocco since 1976 for the independence of Western Sahara on behalf of the indigenous Saharawis. The Polisario and Morocco agreed in Sept. 1991 to a UN-negotiated cease-fire, which was contingent on a referendum regarding independence. For the past decade, however, Morocco has opposed the referendum. In 2002, King Muhammed VI reasserted that he ?will not renounce an inch of? Lääne -Sahara.

Arab Spring Protests Reach Morocco

On May 16, 2003, terrorists believed to be associated with al-Qaeda killed 33 people in several simultaneous attacks. Four bombs targeted Jewish, Spanish, and Belgian buildings in Casablanca. In the 2004 terrorist bombings in Madrid, Spain, numerous Moroccans were implicated.

A wave of suicide bombings struck Casablanca in March and April 2007. Authorities were not certain if the attacks were related

Early in 2011, tens of thousands of pro-democracy protesters gathered in various cities, calling for a shift to a constitutional monarchy in what was termed the February 20th movement. King Mohammed VI answered with promises of reform, which took the shape of a constitutional referendum in July. February 20th supporters called for a boycott of the referendum, calling the included reforms inadequate and taking offense at its intent to bolster the king's position as "supreme arbiter" of political and institutional life.


Sisu

The constitution grants the king extensive powers he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers appoints the Prime Minister following legislative elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. While the constitution theoretically allows the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the military. Upon the death of his father Mohammed V, King Hassan II succeeded to the throne in 1961. He ruled Morocco for the next 38 years, until he died in 1999. His son, King Mohammed VI, assumed the throne in July 1999. [4]

Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government is the first government drawn primarily from opposition parties in decades, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialist, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Saadeddine Othmani.

Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis al-Nuwab/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five-year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine-year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament's powers, though limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence.

On November 26, 2011 initial results of parliamentary elections were released. The moderate Islamist party, the Justice and Development Party (PJD), was projected to win the largest number of seats. However, the electoral rules were structured such that no political party could ever win more than 20 percent of the seats in the parliament. [5]

The full results of the previous election appear as follows: The ruling Justice and Development Party remained the largest party, winning 125 of the 395 seats in the House of Representatives (PJD), a gain of 18 seats compared to the 2011 elections. Abdelillah Benkirane was reappointed Prime Minister by the King on 10 October. [6] The Authenticity and Modernity Party (PAM) won 102 seats, and the rest of the seats were split among smaller parties.

The highest court in the judicial structure is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the King. The Youssoufi government continued to implement a reform program to develop greater judicial independence and impartiality. Morocco is divided into 12 administrative regions the regions are administered by the Walis and governors appointed by the King.


How a Pandemic Ended a Moroccan Empire

A mighty Moroccan dynasty was spreading its power across Africa when a pandemic triggered its downfall.

After the hectic, labyrinthine medina of Rabat disappeared behind me, another Moroccan walled city soon came into view. The sandy ramparts of Chellah stretch alongside a quiet hillside in the east of the busy Moroccan capital. They surround the remains of a grand necropolis—imperial tombs, a mosque, an Islamic college, and a stele tower.

This is one of the oldest sites of settlement in Morocco. The Phoenicians lived here for more than 2,000 years and were replaced not long after by the Romans, who transformed Chellah into a thriving city on the banks of the Bou Regreg River.

Yet it was a Moroccan dynasty, which arrived here many generations after the Romans, that left the most tangible imprint on Chellah. The giant walls before me were erected by the Marinid Dynasty to protect the huge necropolis it built here.

While they offered fine protection against human foes, these fortifications were powerless to halt one particular invader. An invisible assassin snuck into Chellah and Rabat in the mid-1300s and decimated this area. The Black Death had arrived. It would derail the Marinid Dynasty.

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Morocco had been afforded time to prepare its response to this bubonic plague pandemic. This infectious disease, which ended up killing more than 25 million people worldwide in just five years, had been rampant in Europe for many months before it leaped the Strait of Gibraltar and crashed into Morocco.

The eerie way the Black Death emerged and its horrifying effects on the human body make COVID-19 pale by comparison. It exploded across Europe due to a squadron of so-called “death ships.” In October of 1347, the southern Italian seaside city of Messina welcomed 12 vessels from Central Asia. Italian port workers boarded these ships to find a scene seemingly transplanted from a nightmare. Each boat was littered with disease-ridden corpses. The surviving sailors resembled zombies, their malnourished bodies laden with enormous, bloody boils.

There was no precedent for such a situation. The Italian authorities had no idea what they were dealing with. Although they did not allow the plague-infected bodies to be removed from the ships, which they sent back out to sea, the contact between the port workers and the diseased victims was sufficient for the Black Death to spread. It surged across Italy and then Europe, laying to waste town after town, city after city, nation after nation.

As this catastrophe grew, the Marinid Dynasty flourished. The sultan who drove its expansion is buried in Chellah. In searing midday heat, I wandered through the dusty remains of this necropolis until I found the large stone tomb of Abu al-Hasan. An earthquake in 1755 caused extensive damage to Chellah but al-Hasan’s mausoleum is still standing, albeit in a degraded state.

The Marinid Dynasty had ruled Morocco for more than 80 years when al-Hasan took command of it. Their reign began in 1248 when they seized the Moroccan city of Fez, which became the Marinid capital. This extraordinary city is now one of the most popular tourist destinations in Africa due, in part, to several magnificent buildings left behind by the Marinids. Amid the thousands of winding streets of Fez’s walled city is a Marinid creation which is one of the most striking Islamic structures on the planet.

Some buildings shock you with their size, others impress you with their modernity. But it was the sheer depth of creativity and craftsmanship that entranced me as I stood in the splendid courtyard of Fez’s 14th century Bou Inania Madrasas. No space within this Islamic college was left without decoration. Yet this intense weave of design works perfectly.

The Islamic religion was the foundation of the Marinid Dynasty and so, all across Morocco, they constructed Islamic colleges like this. Bou Inania’s intricate floor tiles complement its stunning wall mosaics, Islamic calligraphy inscriptions, delicate wood carvings, and masterful stucco work. The palette of colors on display ranges from cream through to brown, gold, mint, sky blue, aqua, and black.

Bou Inania was intended to be a grand symbol of the wealth and success of the Marinids. During the 1340s this dynasty had reached its zenith, spreading its influence more than 600 miles east of present-day Morocco to the nations of Algeria and Tunisia. At this point, Fez was one of the world’s largest cities and a revered center of intellectual and cultural brilliance.

Yet by the time Bou Inania was completed in 1356, the Marinids were in decline due, in part, to the invasion of the Black Death. In 1348, the year after the plague ambushed Europe, it took root in Morocco with devastating effect. It is estimated that, in the following four years, the Black Death killed up to half of the Moroccan people. Incredibly, it was nearly 200 years until this country’s population returned to its previous amount.

As the plague caused corpses to pile up across Morocco in 1348, its society descended into chaos. The Moroccan people panicked, and terrified, lost confidence in their sultan Abu al-Hasan. This same year, al-Hasan lost a battle in Tunisia and was forced to flee by sea. Soon after, as he attempted to return to Fez, his son Abu Inan betrayed him, declaring himself the new Marinid sultan.

Wounded and with little military support left, al-Hasan eventually surrendered to his son and then perished from an infection in 1351. Along with him was buried the glory era of the Marinid Dynasty. Although it continued to wield considerable power in Morocco for more than a century thereafter, this sultanate was slowly expiring. It had been placed on this path of decay by the Black Death. A once fearsome Moroccan empire diminished and eventually dissolved in the wake of the world’s worst-ever pandemic.


Vaata videot: - Tallinna uudised (Mai 2022).


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